This site contains information about the use of advanced technologies
- virtual reality, mixed reality, interreality, ambient intelligence - in health care.
The site is aimed at a  scholarly audience interested in the effects, efficacy and general influence deriving from the application of these technologies in medicine and in psychology, with respect to public health including financial and usability aspects.

In this site you will find books and research papers, links to the leading research centers and free development and clinical tools to experience the power of ambient intelligence
, mixed reality and virtual reality.
An important focus is given to cybertherapy and e-health. In particular, you can freely download different telemedicine and virtual reality tools.

Also, you have free access to Journals and Book Series:
- Emerging Communication Book Series
Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine
- PsychNology Journal
- Journal of Cybertherapy and Rehabilitation

- The Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation Magazine

Other Open Access Journals:
- Journal of Medical Internet Research
- Electronic Journal of  Health Informatics
- Information Technology and Disabilities
- Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries

In this area you will find papers and projects about ambient intelligence, its applications, the technology behind it, books and research papers, links to the leading research centers.

Search Ambient Intelligence in Google Scholar

  1. FREE BOOK Ambient Intelligence: The evolution of technology, communication and cognition towards the future of human-computer interaction
  2. Ambient Intelligence: Changing Forms of Human-Computer Interaction and their Social Implications
  3. Ambient Intelligence in everyday live (1.2 Mb - PDF)
  4. Ambient Intelligence: Visions and Achievements - DATE 2003 proceedings (840 Kb - PDF)
  5. Ambient Intelligence in Health Care (4.5 Mb -PDF)
  6. Scenarios for Ambient Intelligence in 2010 - ISTAG report (1MB - PDF)
  7. Ambient Intelligence: The vision of Information Society (PDF)
  8. Ambient Intelligence - Philips Home Lab View (PDF)
  9. Enabling Ambient Intelligence via the Web (PDF)
  10. Graspable Objects in Ambient Intelligence (PDF)
  11. Scaling into Ambient Intelligence (PDF)
  12. Presence 2010 - The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence (PDF)
  13. Ambient Intelligence within an Home Environment (PDF)
  14. Ambient Intelligence and the IS in 2010 (PDF)
  15. IC Design challenges for Ambient Intelligence (PDF)
  16. Ambient Intelligence: Vision and Achievments (PDF)
  17. Real time coordination for Ambient Intelligence (PDF)
  18. Smart Artefacts and the Disappearing Computer (PDF)
  19. Eusai 2004 Ambient Intelligence: a report
  20. SoC 2003 - Smart Objects Conference Proceedings
  21. HUMANTEC Project - Design for Humanization of Technology
  22. Ambient Intelligence - The Philips Web Site
  23. Philips Pictures on Ambient Intelligence
  24. The Ambience EU Project
  25. The OXYGEN MIT Project
  26. The Aware Home GeorgiaTech project  
  27. The Disappearing Computer Initiative
  28. The Disappearing Computer
    by Bill Gates
  29. The AMI GO - Ambient Intelligence to go - research project
  30. Resonantware: Near-Future Ubiquitous Networking Devices Visualized by Designers
  31. Accenture Technology Labs.
  32. IBM Pervasive computing Lab.

Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine

New Open Access Journal

Issue 1, 2003
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Issue 4, 2006
Issue 5, 2007
Issue 6, 2008
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Issue 8, 2010
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Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation
The official magazine of the International Association of CyberPsychology, Training and Rehabilitation (I-ACToR)

Read the issues NOW by clicking on the selected cover




Discover the potential of Second Life for Health Care and how we are using it to redefine e-therapy (see movie below).


-  Article: A Second Life for eHealth: Prospects for the Use of 3-D Virtual Worlds in Clinical Psychology: Journal of Medical Internet Research, December, 2008.
- Letter:
Virtual Worlds, Real Healing: Science. December 2007.
-  Paper: Second Life: an overview of the potential of 3-D virtual worlds in medical and health education: Health Information and Library Journal, December 2007.
-  Paper: Web GIS in practice V: 3-D interactive and real-time mapping in
Second Life
: International Journal of Health Geographics, December 2007.
-  Web Site: What is Second Life: Linden Research Presentation, April 2008
-  Web Site: The CDC on Second Life: Presentation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 2007

Journal of CyberTherapy and Rehabilitation

New Scientific Journal


FREE: Read now all the Issues (one year delay):

Volume 1, Issue 1, 2008
Volume 1, Issue 2, 2008
Volume 1, Issue 3, 2008
Volume 2, Issue 1, 2009
Volume 2, Issue 2, 2009
Volume 2, Issue 3, 2009
Volume 2, Issue 4, 2009
Volume 3, Issue 1, 2010
Volume 3, Issue 2, 2010
Volume 3, Issue 2, 2010
Volume 3, Issue 3, 2010

Ask your library to subscribe now (Indexed by PsycInfo)

Open Call for Papers: submit your paper now

Authors' Guidelines are available here

In this area you will find papers and projects about mixed reality, its applications, the technology behind it, books and research papers, links to the leading research centers.

Search Mixed Reality in Google Scholar

  1. Mixed Reality Papers
    1. Mixed Reality Architecture: Concept, Construction, Use (PDF file)
    2. Augmented Reality (on Scientific American)
    3. A Conceptual Framework for Mixed Reality Environments (PDF File)
    4. Authoring Mixed Reality. A Component and Framework-Based Approach (PDF File)
    5. A Framework for Relating Head-Mounted Displays to Mixed Reality (PDF File)
    6. Augmenting Reality Through Coordinated Use of Diverse Interfaces (PDF File)
    7. The Use of Spatial Models in Mixed-Reality Systems (PDF File)
    8. An Authoring Toolkit for Mixed Reality Experiences (PDF File)
    9. Collaborative Mixed Reality (PDF File)
    10. Tangible Mixed Reality for Architectural Design (PDF File)
    11. Staging the space of mixed reality (PDF File)
    12. Mixed Reality or One Reality
    13. Perceptual Issues in Augmented Reality
    14. Multi-player Entertainment in Mixed Reality Space
    15. Social Networking in Massively Multiplayer Online Games (PDF file)
  2. Mixed Reality Research Projects
  3. AMIRE - Mixed Reality EU funded project
  4. Mixed Reality at the Fraunhofer Institute
  5. Mixed Reality at Canon
  6. Mixed Reality Lab. at Singapore
  7. Mixed Reality at the ATR Lab., Kyoto, Japan
  8. Mixed Reality Lab. at University of Nottingham
  9. Mixed Reality at the University of Art & Design, Helsinki
  10. The MATISSE Project (ART performance)
  11. IMMOBOTS - The new robots

Discover the different European and Italian projects that are defining and developing the new technology tools

Find the goals, the partners, the developed tools and the feedbacks we received.

  1. Info about the NeuroTIV Italian funded project (FIRB)
    1. The emergence of p-health: the vision of the project (web based PowerPoint presentation)
    2. The NeuroVR web site
    3. Aims
    4. Partners
    5. The RESEAU network (Italian version)
  2. Info about the VEPSY UPDATED EU funded project (5Th FP)
    1. Aims
    2. Partners
    3. Summary and linked summary
    4. The ATN-P Lab.
    5. VEPSY Updated controlled trial registration
    6. VEPSY Updated results
    7. The final evaluation by the European Union (.tif file)
    8. Why we won the Honourable Mention Award at the Europan e-Health Award 2004
    9. The other high level e-health applications in Europe (2004 - PDF File)
  3. Info about the VREPAR EU funded project (4th FP)
    1. Aims
    2. Partners
    3. The Danish Health Minister tries our VR system
In this area you will find the key info (papers, chapters and web site) that will allow you to understand what is virtual reality, what is cyberspace, their applications, the technology used and the leading scientific journals.

Search Virtual Reality or Cyberspace in Google Scholar

  1. Introduction to Virtual Reality
    1. What is VR?
    2. The Enciclopedia of VEs
    3. Handbook of Virtual Environments
    4. VR Links
    5. VR Search engine
  2. Being There: Presence in Virtual Reality
  3. From Cyborgs to Cyberbodies:The Evolution of the Concept of Techno-Body in Modern Medicine
  4. PC based VR
  5. VR applications (1)
  6. VR applications (2)
  7. The disappearing computer
  8. The Psychology of Cyberspace
  9. Computer Mediated Communication (PDF file)
  10. Towards CyberPsychology
  11. Electronic journals and news-groups (general)
  12. Technology review   
    1. General review of technology
    2. Head Mounted displays
    3. 3d glasses
    4. 3d projection screens
    5. VE Interface Technology
    6. 3D engines list
    7. 3D Software
    8. 3D Audio
    9. The best HW/SW solutions
  13. Haptics  
    1. Haptics Library 
    2. Haptics links
    3. Haptics-e: The Electronic Journal of Haptics Research
    4. Haptics references (listed for areas)
  14. Where to buy VR Stuff
    1. Virtual Realities (all the stuff)
    2. I-o Display Systems (3D glasses)
    3. Elumens (Display solutions)
    4. Cyviz (3d systems)
  15. FREE Cybertherapy and Cyberpsychology journals
    1. Emerging Communication
    2. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication
    3. Journal of Information Technology in Healthcare
    4. Psychnology
    5. Virtual Medical Worlds Journal
  16. Professional virtual environments for mental health therapy
    1. Virtually Better Virtual airplane, Virtual audiences, Virtual heights and Virtual Thunderstorm ($ 10000 each software or $5000 + $4000 for 24 mths including hardware)

    2. Previ Virtual & Body, Virtual Openout 2000 and Psychoflight ($2500 each software)

    3. VirtualHealing Real stories of virtual reality as healing art

    4. Integrated Media System Center The use of Panoramic Video Environments for the treatment of phobias

In this area you will approach advanced VR topics like sensing and perception, haptics, human factors, on-line VR, market and future

  1. Sensing in VR
    1. Vision in VR
    2. Vision and virtual environments
    3. Hearing in VR
    4. Virtual auditory displays
    5. Virtual acceleration:  The role of the vestibular modality
  2. Eye tracking in virtual environments
  3. Locomotion interfaces (PDF file)
  4. Gesture recognition (PDF file)
  5. Human factors
    1. Human factors: a review (PDF file)
    2. Motion sickness: Neurophysiology, Physiological Correlates, and Treatment
    3. Human syndromes associated with synthetic experiences such as virtual environments
    4. VR vestibular adaptation and aftereffects measurement
  6. Direct effects of virtual environments on users
  7. VR as advanced communication tool (PDF file)
  8. VR market and future
  9. Info about VR Online
    1. VR Worlds on the Internet: Software and tutorial
    2. An Advanced Course on Avatars: Building and Exploring VR worlds on the Internet  
    3. The VRML Repository
    4. A Taxonomy for networked VEs (PDF file)
    5. Internet-based virtual environments
  10. Info about Mobile VR
    1. Mobile 3D World
    2. 3D displays for mobile devices
    3. 3D graphics on mobile devices
    4. 3D graphics for mobile platforms
    5. 3D graphics on mobile phones (by Nokia)
    6. Develop state-of-the art 3D mobile games
    7. Mobile 3D Computing
    8. Mobile gaming goes 3D
    9. Mobile gaming prepares for takeoff
    10. Mobile Roundtable: The Future of 3D Mobile Gaming
    11. Trends in Mobile 3D (PDF)
    12. The future in Games Development: 3D mobile
    13. Adding games, graphics on handsets (PDF)
    14. Advanced Game Development with the Mobile 3D Graphics API
    15. Free engines
    16. Ege3D - 3D engine for Symbian 60
    17. Epoc 3D engine for Symbian 60
    18. JAVA 3D API
    19. M3G Export for 3D Studio Max
    20. Magic 101 SDK for Symbian 80
    21. MEAT 3D engine for Symbian 60
    22. Mobile 3D Graphics API for J2ME
    23. Nokia 3D engine sample
    24. Open GL ES 3d engine
    25. X3D 3d language ISO standard
    26. Xith 3D for Java
    27. Professional engines
    28. Flash Lite SDK (2D engine)
    29. Intergrafx 3D Studio SDK
    30. Mophun 3D engine for Symbian
    31. M3G Export for Maya to Mobile 3D Graphics (M3G)
    32. NF3d game engine for Mobile phones
    33. Swerve Studio 3D engine
    34. Xforge 3D engine for Symbian, Palm, Pocket PC


At the hearth of virtual reality and ambient intelligence you will find the concept of presence.
Discover what are presence and telepresence, how to measure them, the added value offered to real world applications, and the projects that are trying to understand their soul.

Search Presence in Google Scholar

  1. Being There: Presence in Virtual Reality (Free on-line book)
  2. A New Theory: The Layers of Presence: A Biocultural approach to understanding Presence
  3. Presence in VEs
    1. Presence and the Self: a cognitive neuroscience approach
    2. Reflections on Real Presence by a Virtual Person
    3. Being There: The Subjective Experience of Presence
    4. Designing Presence
    5. At the Heart of It All: The Concept of Presence
    6. How different ontologies generates different criteria for presence (PDF file)
    7. Dimensions determining Telepresence (PDF file)
    8. The psycho- physiology of Presence
    9. Designing Personal Tele-embodiment (PDF file)
    10. Presence as an Emotional Experience
    11. Cyberpsychology:
      Principles of Creating Virtual Presence
    12. A Virtual Presence Counter (PDF file)
  4. Presence Measurement
    1. Presence: Concept, determinants and measurement (PDF file)
    2. Measuring Presence (PDF file) 
    3. IPO Social Presence Questionnaire (IPO-SPQ)
    4. ITC Sense of Presence Inventory (SOPI)
    5. Igroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ)
    6. Towards a Robust, Quantitative Measure for Presence
    7. Questionnaires in Usability Engineering
    8. Using Presence questionnaires in reality (PDF file)
    9. Behavioural Realism as a metric of Presence (PDF file)
  5. Presence and Embodiment  
    1. The Cyborg's Dilemma: Progressive Embodiment in Virtual Environments
    2. Virtual Eyes Can Rearrange Your Body
    3. Virtual reality and the human body
    4. User embodiment in collaborative virtual reality
    5. Talk and embodiment in collaborative virtual reality
    6. Living digitally: embodiment in virtual world (PDF file)
    7. A classification for user embodiment in collaborative virtual environments (PDF file)
    8. Embodiment without a physical body (PDF file)
    9. Nonverbal communication interface for collaborative VEs (PDF file)
  6. Presence Bibliography  
  7. Presence-connect (on-line journal)
  8. Presence-research (web site)
  9. Sites that represent and/or describe presence-related experiences and news
  10. The EMMA Project: Emotions as a Determinant of Presence

In this area you will find surveys and papers about how to use virtual environments in clinical protocols, books and research papers, links to the leading research centers working in health care applications of VR.

  1. A survey of actual research
  2. Another survey with links to web sites
  3. Medical applications of VR (PDF file)
  4. An introduction to Virtual Reality in Psychiatry
  5. Mind Embodied! Computer-Generated Virtual Reality as a Model for Transpersonal Psychology
  6. VR assisted teleoperation
  7. Real stories of virtual reality as healing art
  8. The design of a clinical oriented VE (PDF file)
  9. VR in clinical Psychology (PDF file)  
  10. Design issues for VR with haptic displays (PDF file)
  11. The leading sites, journals and research groups in the field  
  12. VR in Eating Disorders
    1. Anorexia (PDF file)
    2. Obesity and Binge Eating (PDF file)
    3. Body Image treatment in Obesity and related pathologies (PDF file)
    4. Assessment (PDF File)
    5. Body Image Treatment (PDF file)
    6. Virtual Body Project
  13. VR in Panic Disorders: a clinical protocol (PDF file)
    1. Using Virtual Reality Psychotherapy in Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia
    2. FREE Software for VR Therapy of Panic Disorders
  14. VR in Social Phobia: a research project 
  15. VR as a new form of art-therapy
  16. VR in Movement Disorders
  17. VR in Stroke Disorders
  18. VR in Parkinson's Disease
  19. VR in Spinal Cord Injuries (PDF file)
    1. Images and  videos
  20. VR in Impotence and Premature Ejaculation
  21. VR in surgical education
  22. Virtual Surgeon
  23. VR in pain control
  24. The Visible Human Project
  25. VR for post stroke rehabilitation

In this area you will find the key info (papers, chapters and web site) that will allow you to understand what is Internet therapy, its applications, the technology used and the ethical guidelines

Search Internet Therapy in Google Scholar

  1. Internet therapy and self-help groups: pros and cons
  2. Ethical guidelines for on-line therapy
  3. The impersonal nature of interpersonal cyberspace relationship
  4. Electronic support groups for recovering addicts  
  5. A Behavioral E-Health Model
  6. Credibility Assessments of Online Health Information
  7. Telehospice: Using Telecommunication Technology for Terminally Ill Patients
  8. Telepsychiatry as a Case Study of Presence
  9. Internet Addiction Guide
  10. How to start an Internet Support group
  11. Telehealth and the Evolving Health Care System: Strategic Opportunities for Professional Psychology
In this area you will find free electronic books (pdf, html or open book format) about virtual reality - both technology and applications - telemedicine and e-health - both technology and applications - and advanced technologies.


  1. FREE VR Books
    1. VR in Neuro-Psycho Physiology
    2. VR in Clinical Psychology and Neuroscience  
    3. VR: Scientific and technological challenges
    4. Communications through virtual technologies  
    5. Towards Cyberpsychology: Mind, cognition and society in the Internet age
    6. Avatars!: Exploring and building Virtual World on the Internet
    7. Handbook of Virtual Environments
      1. Virtual environments in manufacturing
      2. VR systems design
      3. Cognitive aspects of virtual environments design
      4. Influence of individual differences on VR application 
      5. Assessment of virtual ergonomics
      6. Usability engineering of virtual environments (PDF file)
      7. Measuring and managing presence in virtual environments
      8. The social impact of virtual environments technology
      9. Adapting to virtual environments (PDF file)
      10. Multimodal interaction modeling (Word file)
      11. Virtual Environments and products liability
      12. Spatial orientation, wayfinding and representation
      13. VR as a tool for academic learning
      14. Team training in VR
      15. Entertainment application of virtual environments
      16. VR engineering applications (PDF File)
  2. FREE E-health Books
    1. A Brief History of the Mind
    2. Telemedicine: a guide to assessing telecommunications for health care
    3. Networking health: prescriptions for the Internet
    4. Health Performance Measurement in the Public Sector: Principles and Policies for Implementing an Information Network  
    5. The Computer-Based Patient Record: An Essential Technology for Health Care, Revised Edition
    6. Improving the Quality of Long-Term Care
    7. Envisioning the National Health Care Quality Report
    8. Innovation and Invention in Medical Devices
    9. Networked systems and embedded computers 
    10. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs  
    11. Bioinformatics: Converting Data to Knowledge
    12. Beyond Productivity: Information, Technology, Innovation, and Creativity
  3. FREE E-Health reports
    1. eHealth: Mapping the Potential of eHealth: Empowering the Citizen through eHealth Tools and Services
    2. HIWW.ORG: The First and Most Comprehensive Health Informatics Index Site
    3. Informing the Future: Critical Issues in Health (PDF file)
    4. Mental Health; A report of the Surgeon General  
    5. Myths and Realities of Online Clinical Work  
    6. ABC's of Internet Therapy Guide
    7. Clinical Applications of Telehealth in Mental Health Care
    8. A Guide to E-Health for the Healthcare Professional: An Introduction
    9. A Guide to E-Health for the Healthcare Professional: What Your Patients Should Know
    10. Telemedicine for the  MEDICARE population
    11. Telemedicine report to congress
    12. Ehealth: Market Potential and Business Strategies  
    13. Ethical Considerations in the Business Aspects of Health Care
    14. The Emerging European Health Telematics Industry
      1. Final report
      2. Annexes
      3. Executive Summary
    15. Through the Kaleidoscope: Viewing the Contributions of the Behavioral and Social Sciences to Health
    16. Medical Innovation in the Changing Healthcare Marketplace
  4. FREE Technology/Internet Books
    1. The Future of the Internet: technology experts and scholars evaluate where the network is headed in the next ten years
    2. The Internet's coming of age
    3. Embedded, Everywhere: A Research Agenda for Networked Systems of Embedded Computers
    4. Broadband: Bringing Home the Bits
    5. Trust in Cyberspace
    6. Information Systems and the Environment
    7. Cybersecurity Today and Tomorrow
    8. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technolog Research to Meet Society's Needs
    9. The art of electronic publishing: Internet and beyond

  The tools for VR development
In this area you will find the free tools and the professional ones to develop your own virtual reality environment.
If you want to use already tested clinical environments or modify existing ones without an advanced technical knowledge try here.

  1. Free Tools for VR Development
    1. Maya 5 Personal Learning Edition (Platform for creating 3D graphics)
    2. GMax 3D Game Editor (Editor for commercial 3D games)
    3. Eon Personal Edition (Web based 3d environment)
    4. New-Generation Open Web3D Standard (Free SDK)
    5. Alice2.0b(VR development Kit)
    6. VNet (Multi-user VRML-Java based VR toolkit)
    7. Blender (3D game/world creator)
    8. 3D Rad Free (3D game toolkit)
    9. VRUT  (3D graphics environment  for building and rendering VEs)
    10. Wild Tangent Personal Web Driver (Web based 3D environment)
    11. Traveler Communities (3D Web based chat)
    12. VR Pharus 3D Builder - Free VRML Development toolkit
  2. Professional tools for VR development

    1. 3D Rad  3D Rad Network
    2. Activeworlds  World Server
    3. Adobe Atmosphere
    4. Anark Anark Studio
    5. Apple  QuickTime VR

    6. Conitec  3D Game Studio

    7. Cycore CULT 3D Designer

    8. Eon  Eon Studio, Eon Server and Eon Immersive

    9. iPix  360 Suite

    10. Macromedia  Director MX

    11. Sense 8  WorldToolkit, World Up and World2World

    12. Virtools  Virtools Dev

    13. Viewpoint  Developer zone

    14. WildTangent  Web Driver SDK

To understand the future of communication and technologies read the white papers from the leading telecommunication companies worldwide, the essays from the visionary labs and the work done by the "future" project.

  1. White papers from:

    1. The future of telecommunications:
      Is there a revenue for Quality?
      (Pdf, 1405 Kb)

    2. Is there a future
      for Telecommunications?
      (Pdf, 1225 Kb)

    3. A wireless word (Pdf, 2310 Kb)

    4. The Future of Communications.
      Managing What, Managing How?
      (Pdf, 2685 Kb)

  2. Other "future"essays

    1. Converging Technologies
      for Improving Human Performance:
      Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information

       Technology and Cognitive Science (Pdf, 5580 Kb

    2. The future of everything from BT

    3. Future technologies white papers from BT

    4. The future of communication from Vodafone

    5. "Future" projects at MIT Media Lab.

    6. The future from the IST Advisory Group - ISTAG

  3. IPTS "future" projects

    1. Fistera - Foresight on Information Society
       in the European Research Area

    2. Futures - Emerging cross-impacts between
       technological, social, political and economic/
       industrial trajectories

    3. Euforia - Knowledge society foresights                 

  4. Sites where you can track
     the technologies of the future

  1. Extremetech

  2. Gizmodo

  3. I4U

  4. MobileMag

  5. MobileTracker

  6. Slashdot

  7. Wired


COS Funding Opportunities
the largest and most comprehensive research funding database on the Web (subscription required)

All the open Telemedicine call


Over 9000 papers included

The main telemedicine journals

Telemedicine Glossary 


A detailed report
(IEEE CG&A, 19 (6), 1999)

 PsychNology Journal

FREE on-line Journal (Now Indexed by PsycINFO):

Open Call for Papers

Here are direct links to the key parts of the web site:
-LEARN: Discover what are ambient intelligence, virtual reality, mixed reality, cyberspace and what they can do for you
READ: Download free books and papers
- TRY: Download the freeware virtual tools. Neuro VR 2 (new version) is now available
- US: Our lab, our projects, the people
- BLOG: The latest news in real time (Positive Technology Journal)
- THE CONFERENCE: Cybertherapy 2012
- 25-28 September, Bruxelles, Belgium

Healthcare & Life Science

Book: Advanced Technologies in Rehabilitation. Read it here. January 4, 2012.
Journal Issue: Journal of Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation: Medical Simulation, Volume 4, ISSUE 4.
Read it here. December 15, 2011.
Journal Issue: Journal of Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation: Metabolic Disorders, Volume 4, ISSUE 3.
Read it here. December 15, 2011.
Download it here. September 15, 2011.
Journal Issue: Journal of Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation: Stress Inoculation Training, Volume 4, ISSUE 2.
Read it here. August 12, 2011.
Journal Issue: Annual Review of Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation, Volume 9.
Read it here. July 5, 2011.
Journal Issue: Journal of Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation: Personalised Health, Volume 4, ISSUE 1.
Read it here. February 10, 2011.
Journal Issue: Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation, ISSUE 5 .
Read it here. November 30, 2010.
Article: Assessment of the emotional responses produced by exposure to real food, virtual food and photographs of food in patients affected by eating disorders:
Annals of General Psychiatry, 2010, 9:30, 22 June 2010.
Journal Issue: Journal of Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation, ISSUES 1 and 2.
Read it here. March 15, 2010.
Article: Neuroscience and Eating Disorders: The role of the medial temporal lobe:
Nature Precedings, March 12, 2010.
Journal Issue: Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation, ISSUE 4 .
Read it here. March 1, 2010.
Article: On Feeling (the) Present: An evolutionary account of the sense of presence in physical and electronically-mediated environments.
Journal of Consciousness Studies, 17, No. 1–2: 167-178. February 11, 2010.
Article: Interreality in Practice: Bridging Virtual and Real Worlds in the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorders:
Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 2010, 13 (1): 55-6. January 31, 2010.
Journal Issue: Journal of Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation, ISSUES 3 and 4.
Read it here. January 18, 2010.
Article: Emotional Response to Virtual Reality Exposure across Different Cultures: The Role of the Attribution Process:
CyberPsychology & Behavior. December 2009, Vol. 12, No. 6: 699-705. December 11, 2009.
- Journal Special Issue: CyberPsychology & Behavior, Long Abstracts from CT 14.
Read it here. October 15, 09.
Journal Issue: Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation, ISSUE 2.
Read it here. September 16, 09
Article: Virtual reality: an experiential tool for clinical psychology:
British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. August, 25, 09.
- Book Chapter: Rehabilitation as Empowerment: The Role of Advanced Technologies:
Advanced Technologies in Rehabilitation - Empowering Cognitive, Physical, Social and Communicative Skills through Virtual Reality, Robots, Wearable Systems and Brain-Computer Interfaces, August 21, 09.
- Article: Is Presence a Technology Issue? Some insights from Cognitive Sciences
Virtual Reality. August 10, 09.
- Article: Therapeutic Applications of the mobile phone:
British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. August 5, 09.
- Article: Can Relaxation Training reduce Emotional Eating in women with Obesity? An exploratory study with 3 months of follow-up
Journal of American Dietetic Association. July 2 09.
- New 2009 ISSUE Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine (ARCTT)
:, July 8, 09.
- Article: The green valley: the use of mobile narratives for reducing stress in commuters.
CyberPsychology & Behavior. March 29, 09.
- Article: The Role of Interactive Media Features on the Affective Response: a Virtual Reality Study:
eMind. International Journal on Human Computer Interaction. January 31, 09.
- Journal Issue: Cybertherapy & Rehabilitation, ISSUE 1.
Read it here. January 26, 09
- Article: Virtual clinical therapy:
Lecture Notes in Computer Sciences, December, 4, 08.
- Article: A Second Life for eHealth: Prospects for the Use of 3-D Virtual Worlds in Clinical Psychology:
Journal of Medical Internet Research, December, 4, 08.
- Article: The role of media in supporting a stress management protocol: An experimental study:
Journal of Cybertherapy and Rehabilitation, October, 14, 08.
NeuroVR New Version 1.5 - Free VR Development toolkit for Clinical Psycholgy and Rehabilitation, June, 22, 08.
-  Special Issue: Presence. Where do you Feel you Are Today?: PsychNology Journal May 06, 08
-  Article: Presence and Relaxation: PsychNology Journal  May 06, 08.

-  Article: Virtual Reality in Anxiety Disorders, The Past and the Future: Expert Review of NeuroTherapeutics  March 18, 08.
- New Journal: Journal of Cybertherapy and Rehabilitation
: Open Call for Papers. February 12, 08. Download the first issue here
-  Letter:
Virtual Worlds, Real Healing: Science, by Gorini, Gaggioli & Riva. January 12, 08. See also the video here
-  Letter: Virtual Reality and Telepresence: Science, by Riva. January 8, 08.
-  Article: A VR extended neuropsychological assessment for topographical disorientation : Journal of Neuroengineering & Rehabilitation. November 21, 07
-  Article: Therapy 2.0: Fantasy Therapy - Scientific American Mind. October 18, 07
-  Article: New Technology for Relaxation, The Role of Presence: International Journal of Stress Management. September 12, 07
-  Article: VR in the treatment of panic disorders with agoraphobia, a controlled study: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy  August 11, 07
-  Special Issue: Emerging Trends in Cybertherapy: PsychNology Journal August 11, 07
-  Article: Affective Interaction using VR, The link between Presence and Emotions: CyberPsychology & Behavior April 29, 07
-  Article: A Strategy of Computer-Assisted Mental Practice in Stroke Rehabilitation : NeuroRehabilitation and Neural Repair January 13, 07

-  Article: VR in Obesity: Is Obesity an addiction? A Controlled Clinical Trial. November 18, 06
-  Article: Transformation of flow in rehabilitation
: The role of advanced communication technologies. September 15, 06
- Research Award: VR Mirror  -
Winner of the 2006 Prize of the European Academy of Rehabilitation MedicineMay 19, 06
-  Free Book:  Technology for adaptive aging - A "The National Academies" bookMay 19, 06
- Research Group: VR&MP  -
Virtual Reality & Multimedia Park, Turin, Italy, May 03, 06
-  Project: The Dream Island  - Virtual Reality & UMTS Phones to combat stress, March 05, 06

-  Articles: CP&B Special Issue - Virtual Reality in Clinical Psychology and Rehabilitation, January 03, 06
VR Pharus 3D builder - Free VRML Development toolkit, December 13, 05
- Tool: VR BIAS: Free 3D Body Image Assessment Software, December 1, 05
-  Free Book: Improving the quality of health care for substance-use condition  - A "The National Academies" bookMay 15, 05
- Article: Le Figarò - Le virtuel s'attaque aux phobies
(PDF - in French),April 22, 05
- Chapter:
Optimal Experience in Ambient Intelligence, Published in the Ambient Intelligence book: March 22, 05

analyze the processes by which ambient intelligence, mixed reality and virtual reality will contribute to the delivery of state-of-the-art IST applications and services.
Particular attention is given to the development of innovative e-health tools.

OUR COMPANION WEB SITES the web site where you can start immediately to use VR in your clinical practice. the web site of the Cybertherapy 2011 conference, that will be held in
Canada - 19-22 June 2011. the free book series (electronic format) where you can discover the latest trends in technology and communication the site of the "Psychnology Journal" a free Scientific Journal now also indexed by PsycInfo.

Chi parla solo italiano può visitare e il  sito del volume "Psicologia Clinica dell'Obesità" di Enrico Molinari e Giuseppe Riva, che include una serie di indicazioni, strumenti e di ambienti virtuali da provare subito.

Per approfondire invece la conoscenza di realtà virtuale e ambient intelligence, è consigliato il sito del volume "Psicologia dei Nuovi Media", di Giuseppe Riva recentemente pubblicato presso il Mulino.

In alternativa, per un approfondimento del concetto di Presenza è consigliato il volume "Conoscenza, Comunicazione e Tecnologia: Aspetti Cognitivi della Realtà Virtuale" recentemente pubblicato dalla LED e scaricabile in formato elettronico.

Open Access Journals:

Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine

Journal of Medical Internet Research

PsychNology Journal

Electronic Journal of  Health Informatics

Information Technology and Disabilities

Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries



Our last Italian books:

Copertina 13858





Here you can
download fully working on-line and off-line virtual reality tools. You can choose between open environments you can modify or fully tested clinical environments for the treatment of Panic Disorders (treatment protocol included).

Search Virtual Reality in Health Care in Google Scholar

NeuroVR - The Free and Easy to use VR system for Clinical Psychology and Rehabilitation - V.1.5 Now Available -
Download it now

Below the quality of the VEs (movie shot on a P4 laptop with 128Mb graphic card)

  1. Our companion VR web site
  2. Free clinical VR environments for Panic Disorders (very high quality graphics - offline only)
    1. The square
    2. The supermarket
    3. The subway
    4. The elevator
    5. The clinical protocol (PDF)
    6. The clinical trial supporting their efficacy
  3. Free clincal VR environments for Panic Disorders (low quality - online)
    1. The clinical protocol (PDF)
  4. Free open clinical VR environments (high quality - online): you can modify them
    1. How you can use VR in clinical psychology
    2. How you can modify the open environments
    3. To learn more about Cybertherapy
  5. Free 3D Images to test body image dissatisfaction  
    1. The Dynamic Body Rating Scale
    2. VR BIAS: 3D Body-Image Assessment Software
  6. Free validated clinical questionnaires
    1. Eating Attitudes Test
    2. Big Five Personality Test
    3. General Adult ADD Symptom Checklist
    4. Beck Depression Inventory
    5. Internet Addiction Test
  7. Body Mass Index calculator


The leading conference in cybertherapy:

CALL FOR PAPERS (deadline: 1March 2012) AND INFO

Conference: September 25th - 28th, 2012, Bruxelles, Belgium
Preconference Workshops:
September 24th
Cyberarium & Exhibits:
September 27th



Read the description of the conference (PDF) published by the American Psychiatric Association journal "Psychiatric Services"

Cybertherapy 2009 Web site

2010 Proceedings - Read them now

Two sample papers from previous conferences (unchecked proofs):

Virtual Reality Training for Health-Care Professional (PDF)

Six-Month Follow-Up of In-Patient Experiential Cognitive Therapy for Binge Eating Disorders (PDF)

  eHealth award 2004: we won the Honourable Mention Award
The European Institute of Public Administration (EIPA), in cooperation with the European Commission organized the eEurope Awards Programme,  to select Good Practices in eHealth tools and services for the citizen (download here the best cases of eHealth tools - PDF File). Discover here why we won. See the award ceremony here. The full list of winners is here.


Download in PDF format the reference book in the field (indexed in Medline)

Riva, G., Botella, C., Légeron, P., Optale, G. (2004) Cybertherapy: Internet and Virtual Reality as Assessment and Rehabilitation Tools for Clinical Psychology and Neuroscience, Amsterdam: Ios Press


Download in HTML and PDF format the reference papers in the field (All the papers are unchecked proofs or were collected from the web
- Our copyright policy).

Search CyberTherapy in Google Scholar

Virtual reality: an experiential tool for clinical psychology, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, August 2009

-Therapeutic applications of the mobile phone,
British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. August 2009

Therapy 2.0 - Fantasy Therapy (PDF), Scientific American Mind, Oct/Nov 2007

  Virtual Reality: Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Enginering, 2007

Is severe obesity a form of addiction? Rationale, clinical approach, and a VR-based controlled clinical trial. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 2006 Aug;9(4):457-79.

CyberPsychology and Behavior Special Review Issue, June 05 - 8 (3) - Selected Papers:

* VR in psychhoterapy
* VR for brain damage rehabilitation
* VR for motor rehabilitation

Virtual reality in the
treatment of eating disorders and obesity
, Private Hospital Healthcare Europe, March 2005

Presence and rehabilitation: toward second-generation virtual reality applications in neuropsychology, Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, December 2004

Ambient Intelligence in Rehabilitation, in Ambient Intelligence, Eds. Riva, G. et al., IOS Press, 2005.

Virtual Reality in Rehabilitation, Special Issue of the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, December 2004

Virtual Reality Therapy, Scientific, August 2004

The Layers of Presence: A Biocultural approach to understanding Presence CyberPsychology & Behavior,7 (4), 405-419, 2004

Applications of Virtual Reality in Medicine, Methods of Information in Medicine, 5 (5), 524-534, Oct 2003.

Virtual Reality in Clinical Psychology
Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice and Training, 40 (1-2), 68-76, 2003

Ambient Intelligence in Health Care (4.5 MB) CyberPsychology and Behavior, 6 (3), 295-300, 2003

eHealth: Mapping the Potential of eHealth: Empowering the Citizen through eHealth Tools and Services (2004 - EIPA Report) (PDF - 900 Kb)  

Virtual interaction in cognitive neuropsychology
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 99, 2004

Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 99, 2004


Virtual reality in behavioral neuroscience and beyond,
Nature Neuroscience
1089-1092,Oct .2002

Virtual Reality Therapy,
Harvard Mental Health Letter, on-line, April 2003

Fake worlds offer real medicine,
,  290 (10), 2107-2109, 22/29 Oct 2003

Real therapy... Virtually
The Journal of Addiction and Mental Health, 7 (2),14-15, 2003

Ambient Intelligence in everyday live - JRC/IPTS - ESTO Study (1.2 Mb - PDF)

Ambient Intelligence: Visions and Achievements - DATE 2003 proceedings (840 Kb - PDF)

Virtual Rehabilitation: Benefits and Challenges
1st International Workshop on Virtual Reality Rehabilitation, 2002

Technology for Adaptive Aging: Report and Papers, National Academies Press, 2004

Health Informatics: Research and development in Europe, by Sophie Noranger, 2002


Download the video with the different phases of the treatment, the clinical protocol and the scientific papers published on indexed journals.

Assess your body dissatisfaction level using the Dynamic Body Rating Scale


cover our VR treatment of Obesity and Eating Disorders:

SCIENCE: TeleTherapy for Eating Disorders, 26 October 2001, Volume 294, Number 5543, p.777

JAMA: Fake worlds offer real medicine,
290 (10), 2107-2109, 22/29 Oct 2003

We presented it to NIH:
Virtual Reality: Opportunities for the NIH


Download the FREE software, the clinical protocols, scientific papers published on indexed journals and try by yourself...


covers our VR treatment of Panic Disorders with Agoraphobia:
A New Approach: Using Virtual Reality Psychotherapy in Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia, Psychiatric Times, July 2003, Vol. XX, Issue 7

Also read in French:

- Sciences et Avenir: the extended coverage on the treatment of Social Phobia (PDF)

- Le Figarò - The role of virtual reality in the treatment of Phobias and Eating Disorders (PDF)



NEW - More and Faster Environments: Customize and share your clinical virtual environments for FREE, even for POCKET PC

Fragment 2

Add your own photos and 3D objects to professionally developed VR worlds FREE

FREE on-line - 15 May 2004   
How electronic communication is changing health care
Table of contents

Selected papers

  The first generation of e-patients
Tom Ferguson, Gilles Frydman
  BMJ  2004;328:1148-1149, doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7449.1148 [Full text] [PDF] [extra: Reading list and web resources]
  Evaluation of ehealth systems and services
  David H Gustafson, Jeremy C Wyatt
  BMJ  2004;328:1150, doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7449.1150 [Full text] [PDF]  
  Health related virtual communities and electronic support groups: systematic review of the effects of online peer to peer interactions
Gunther Eysenbach,
et al.
  BMJ  2004;328:1166, doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7449.1166 [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]   

FREE on-line 

In this supplement (November 2002) fifteen review articles discuss recent progress toward a variety of practical applications of basic neuroscience, including Virtual Reality (Virtual reality in behavioral neuroscience and beyond, pp 1089 - 1092).

Also free on-line the new paper:

Presence and the Self: a cognitive neuroscience approach
(Presence-connect, Vol.3, Issue 3, 2003)

APA Journal: Psychotherapy: Theory/Research/Practice/Training

Special Issue Now Available for Purchase (US$ 30):
The Technology of Psychotherapy

Two sample papers (unchecked proofs):

Virtual Reality in Clinical Psychology (PDF)

New and Old Tools in Psychotherapy (PDF)

FREE on-line (PDF format) 

The new Emerging Communication Volumes

Identity, Community and Technology in the Communication Age

Mind, Cognition and Society in the Internet Age

New perspectives on miscommunication

Concepts, effects and measurement
 of user presence in synthetic environments

The evolution of technology, communication and cognition towards the future of human-computer interaction

From Neurons to Culture Patterns

Cognition, Emotions and Culture towards the Ultimate Communicative Experience

A Cognitive and Social Perspective on the Study of Interactions


FREE On-line issue

CyberPsychology & Behavior

The journal is now indexed by Medline ®, PsycLIT ® and Social Science Citation Index ®
Impact Factor 2010: 1.795

Read the review of the journal (PDF) made by "Nature"

Two sample papers (unchecked proofs):

Ambient Intelligence in Health Care (4.5 Mb - PDF)

A research method for the study of VR and Internet applications (PDF)  

New free book about the link between Technology, Innovation and Creativity

Cover Image

Beyond Productivity: Information, Technology, Innovation, and Creativity, National Academies Press, 2003

Virtually There
Three-dimensional tele-immersion may eventually bring the world to your desk

(By Jaron Lanier, Scientific American, April 2001)

MMVR11:  NextMed - Health Horizon






MMVR 2011

The 18th annual Medicine Meets Virtual Reality conference will define the edge of interactive computer-based technology for surgery and telemedicine. 

January 19 - 22, 2011


 FREE the main researches
 with clinical data
Indexed by

book2_sm.gif (15322 bytes)
VR in Clinical Psychology and Neuroscience

FREE the reference book in the clinical VR field
 Indexed by

book1_sm.gif (16550 bytes)
Virtual Reality in Neuro-Psycho-Physiology


The latest VR News

FREE the reference books for Virtual Reality from the National Academy Press

Display Catalog Information
Virtual reality: Scientific and Technological challenges


Virtual reality comes of age

FREE some chapters from the Bible of VR  

Handbook of Virtual Environments  
(Editor: Stanney K.)

Buy the paper version

Forthcoming (see the PDF Table of contents)

Virtual Reality Technology (2nd Edition)
(Editors: Burdea & Coiffet)

  Display Catalog Information

FREE the latest reports on the future of Health Care from the US National Academy Press

FREE the reference book
 for Avatar use and 3d Chat

AVATARS! written by Bruce Damer

British Medical Journal essays (HTML format)

  1. How to read a scientific paper
  2. How to understand statistics for health care
  3.  Evaluating the quality of health
    information on the internet


The review published on Computer Graphic World, (CGW, 24: 1, Jan 2001)

The Evolution of the Concept of Techno-Body in Modern Medicine (Psychnology, 1 (2), 2003)




Tha data published on the  Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 2001, 6 (4)

White papers from ISMHO  

Myths and Realities of Online Clinical Work 

Assessing a Person's Suitability for Online Therapy

Suggested Principles for the Online Provision of Mental Health Services

Research Bibliography on Online Mental Health Interventions

Potential Risks and Benefits of Online Psychotherapeutic Interventions

Reviews published by the
 The aims of the electronic version of the BMJ are to publish rigorous accessible information that will help doctors improve their practice and will influence the international debate on health.

British Medical Journal

short guide to tools for rating quality of health information on the internet
BMJ, 324: 598/602 - 9 Mar 2002)

(BMJ, 323: 912/15 - 20 Oct 2001)

(BMJ, 320: 1517-1520 - 3 June 2000)
 (BMJ, 323: 557/60 - 8 Sep 2001)
(BMJ, 324:1434-1437- 15 June 2002)
(BMJ, 327: 1205-1209 - 21 November 2003)

 (BMJ, 319: 1305 - 13 Nov 1999)



Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine

Electronic Journal of  Health Informatics

Information Technology and Disabilities

Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries

Journal of Medical Internet Research

PsychNology Journal


This site is maintained by Giuseppe Riva, Ph.D.

Click here for the latest papers and books published by Riva (PDF format)

Giuseppe Riva papers indexed by Medline


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Last modified: 4 January 2012